RFID Radio-frequency Identification

Radio-frequency identification (RFID) uses electromagnetic fields to automatically identify and track tags, containing electronically stored information, attached to objects. There are passive and active tags.
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In 2009, Kevin Ashton, who cofounded the Auto-ID Center researching RFID, wrote an article in the RFID Journal titled “That ‘Internet of Things’ Thing”. He is attributed with having coined the IoT term then.

Frequencies
Band Range Speed ~Tag$
LF 10cm Low $1
HF 10cm-1m Low >$0.50
UHF422 1-100m Moderate $5
UHF865 1-12m Moderate $0.15
╬╝wave <200m High $25

Radio-frequency identification (RFID) uses electromagnetic fields to automatically identify and track tags attached to objects. The tags contain electronically stored information. Passive tags collect energy from a nearby RFID reader’s interrogating radio waves. Active tags have a local power source (such as a battery) and may operate hundreds of meters from the RFID reader. Unlike a barcode, the tag need not be within the line of sight of the reader, so it may be embedded in the tracked object.

RFID tags are used in many industries, for example, an RFID tag attached to an automobile during production can be used to track its progress through the assembly line; RFID-tagged pharmaceuticals can be tracked through warehouses; and implanting RFID microchips in livestock and pets allows for positive identification of animals. Tags can also be used in shops to expedite checkout, and to prevent theft by customers and employees.

Security and Privacy

ISO/IEC 18000 and ISO/IEC 29167 use on-chip cryptography methods for untraceability, tag and reader authentication, and over-the-air privacy. ISO/IEC 20248 specifies a digital signature data structure for RFID and barcodes providing data, source and read method authenticity. This work is done within ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 31 Automatic identification and data capture techniques.

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