Contiki

An open source operating system for the Internet of Things. Contiki connects tiny low-cost, low-power microcontrollers to the Internet. Contiki is a powerful toolbox for building complex wireless systems.
contiki-os.org

Programming on Contiki is done using the Cooja network simulator. To program, control and monitor the remote IoT devices, the back-end C base libraries of RFID chips and sensors can be customised and recompiled to get the desired results.

Contiki is an operating system for networked, memory-constrained systems with a focus on low-power wireless Internet of Things devices. Extant uses for Contiki include systems for street lighting, sound monitoring for smart cities, radiation monitoring, and alarms. It is open-source software released under a BSD license.

Contiki provides multitasking and a built-in Internet Protocol Suite (TCP/IP stack), yet needs only about 10 kilobytes of random-access memory (RAM) and 30 kilobytes of read-only memory (ROM). A full system, including a graphical user interface, needs about 30 kilobytes of RAM.

Networking

Contiki provides a full IP network stack, with standard IP protocols such as UDP, TCP, and HTTP, in addition to the new low-power standards like 6lowpan, RPL, and CoAP.

Power Awareness

Contiki is designed to operate in extremely low-power systems: systems that may need to run for years on a pair of AA batteries. To assist the development of low-power systems, Contiki provides mechanisms for estimating the system power consumption and for understanding where the power was spent.

Hardware Platforms

Contiki runs on a wide range of tiny platforms, ranging from 8051-powered systems-on-a-chip through the MSP430 and the AVR to a variety of ARM devices.

Programming Model: Protothreads

To save memory but provide a nice control flow in the code, Contiki uses a mechanism called protothreads. Protothreads is a mixture of the event-driven and the multi-threaded programming mechanisms. With protothreads, event-handlers can be made to block, waiting for events to occur.

Wikipedia and contiki-os.org

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