GSM Global System for Mobile Communications

GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications, originally Groupe Spécial Mobile) is a standard developed by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) to describe the protocols for second-generation digital cellular networks used by mobile devices such as tablets. The GSM standard originally described as a digital, circuit-switched network optimized for full duplex voice telephony. This expanded over time to include data communications, first by circuit-switched transport, then by packet data transport via GPRS (General Packet Radio Services) and EDGE (Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution, or EGPRS).
Wikipedia

GSM supports voice calls and data transfer speeds of up to 9.6 kbps, together with the transmission of SMS (Short Message Service).

GSM operates in the 900MHz and 1.8GHz bands in Europe and the 1.9GHz and 850MHz bands in the US. GSM services are also transmitted via 850MHz spectrum in Australia, Canada and many Latin American countries. The use of harmonised spectrum across most of the globe, combined with GSM’s international roaming capability, allows travellers to access the same mobile services at home and abroad. GSM enables individuals to be reached via the same mobile number in up to 219 countries.

Terrestrial GSM networks now cover more than 90% of the world’s population. GSM satellite roaming has also extended service access to areas where terrestrial coverage is not available. Read More

Network structure
  • Base station subsystem – the base stations and their controllers explained
  • Network and Switching Subsystem – the part of the network most similar to a fixed network, sometimes just called the “core network”
  • GPRS Core Network – the optional part which allows packet-based Internet connections
  • Operations support system (OSS) – network maintenance
gsma.com

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