Hydraulic

A hydraulic actuator consists of cylinder or fluid motor that uses hydraulic power to facilitate mechanical operation. The mechanical motion gives an output in terms of linear, rotatory or oscillatory motion. As liquids are nearly impossible to compress, a hydraulic actuator can exert a large force. The drawback of this approach is its limited acceleration.
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Advantages

  • Hydraulic actuators are rugged and suited for high-force applications. They can produce forces 25 times greater than pneumatic cylinders of equal size. They also operate in pressures of up to 4,000 psi.
  • Hydraulic motors have high horsepower-to-weight ratio by 1 to 2 hp/lb greater than a pneumatic motor.
  • A hydraulic actuator can hold force and torque constant without the pump supplying more fluid or pressure due to the incompressibility of fluids
  • Hydraulic actuators can have their pumps and motors located a considerable distance away with minimal loss of power.

Disadvantages

  • Hydraulics will leak fluid. Like pneumatic actuators, loss of fluid leads to less efficiency. However, hydraulic fluid leaks lead to cleanliness problems and potential damage to surrounding components and areas.
  • Hydraulic actuators require many companion parts, including a fluid reservoir, motors, pumps, release valves, and heat exchangers, along with noise-reduction equipment. This makes for linear motions systems that are large and difficult to accommodate.
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A hydraulic cylinder (also called a linear hydraulic motor) is a mechanical actuator that is used to give a unidirectional force through a unidirectional stroke. It has many applications, notably in construction equipment (engineering vehicles), manufacturing machinery, and civil engineering.

Tie rod cylinder

Tie rod style hydraulic cylinders use high strength threaded steel rods to hold the two end caps to the cylinder barrel. They are most often seen in industrial factory applications. Small bore cylinders usually have 4 tie rods, and large bore cylinders may require as many as 16 or 20 tie rods in order to retain the end caps under the tremendous forces produced. Tie rod style cylinders can be completely disassembled for service and repair, and they are not always customizable.

Welded body cylinder

Welded body cylinders have no tie rods. The barrel is welded directly to the end caps. The ports are welded to the barrel. The front rod gland is usually threaded into or bolted to the cylinder barrel. That allows the piston rod assembly and the rod seals to be removed for service.

Welded body cylinders have a number of advantages over tie rod style cylinders. Welded cylinders have a narrower body and often a shorter overall length enabling them to fit better into the tight confines of machinery. Welded cylinders do not suffer from failure due to tie rod stretch at high pressures and long strokes. The welded design also lends itself to customization. Special features are easily added to the cylinder body, including special ports, custom mounts, valve manifolds, and so on.

The smooth outer body of welded cylinders also enables the design of multi-stage telescopic cylinders.

Welded body hydraulic cylinders dominate the mobile hydraulic equipment market such as construction equipment (excavators, bulldozers, and road graders) and material handling equipment (forklift trucks, telehandlers, and lift-gates). They are also used by heavy industry in cranes, oil rigs, and large off-road vehicles for above-ground mining operations.

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